Saturday, May 23, 2020
In English grammar, a compound adverb is a construction in which one adverb is paired with another adverb (or sometimes with another part of speech). Together these words are used to modify a verb, an adjective, another adverb, or an entire clause. Also called a compound modifiers, compound adverbs are sometimes written as one word (e.g., somewhere), sometimes as one hyphenated word (self-consciously), and sometimes as two words (inside out). Multi-word adverbs are commonly called adverbial phrases. In the Oxford Modern English Grammar (2011), Bas Aarts notes that English allows a great variety of compounds and not everyone agrees exactly on how to delimit the class of compounds. Examples I came every day to see him, neglecting my other students and therefore my livelihood.(Bernard Malamud, The German Refugee. The Saturday Evening Post, 1964)Therefore is a compound adverb that has the largest number of occurrences in the Helsinki Corpus... Along with therefore, thereupon is the only other compound adverb that emerges in Middle English but continues into [Ã¢â¬â¹Modern English] and up to the present day. (Aune Osterman, There Compounds in the History of English.Grammaticalization at Work, ed. by Matti Rissanen et al. Walter de Gruyter, 1997)Instead of ordering an immediate pursuit of the Confederate forces, McClellan waited overnight, and then timidly headed west to South Mountain, still believing that Lees dirty, hungry, and tired army heavily outnumbered his Union force. (Ed Okonowicz, The Big Book of Maryland Ghost Stories. Stackpole, 2010)Emerson made no distinction between honest and dishonest methods of getting the bicycle. Sometimes he would discuss plans for d eceiving the owner of the hardware store, who would somehow be maneuvered into sending it to him by mistake, and sometimes it was to be his reward for a deed of heroism.Ã SometimesÃ he spoke of a glass-cutter. (Elizabeth Bishop, The Farmers Children.Ã Harpers Bazaar, 1949)Each of the career military pilotsÃ was a graduate of his respective test pilot school, while the NASA pilotsÃ were trainedÃ in-house. (Milton O. Thompson,Ã At the Edge of Space: The X-15 Flight Program.Ã Smithsonian, 2013)BillyÃ spoke off-line, then came back on. Leslie will meet you with one at the airplane. (Tom Wilson, Final Thunder. Signet, 1996)There was a time, however, and not too many years ago, when the average plastic worm fisherman wasnt so all-fired certain that a sudden move was the best move. (Art Reid,Ã Fishing Southern Illinois. Southern Illinois University Press, 1986)[Paul Nitze] tried to halt the Korean War and then helped stop it from spreading. He tried, early on, to extric ate the United States from Vietnam. (Nicholas Thompson, The Hawk and the Dove: Paul Nitze, George Kennan, and the History of the Cold War. Henry Holt, 2009)We went to a restaurant, and I behaved very well, but I couldnt eat, and then we went to the train and people looked at us, but I couldnt smile. (Harold Brodkey, Verona: A Young Woman Speaks. Esquire, 1978)The worst of it was it got so hot. That was a bad time for me I tell you. I got pretty thirsty. I dont know how I kept on that piece of board but I did, for three days. I got sunburnt, I tell you, pretty badly. The last day I dont remember anything. (William Carlos Williams, White Mule, 1937)I amused Emily; I almost always made her smile. (Alice Adams, Roses, Rhododendron. The New Yorker, 1976)He addressed a small statue of a saint which stood upside down on the washstand, propped in this uncomfortable position between tooth mug and soap dish. (Lyle Saxon, Fabulous New Orleans, 1939)He seemed to have a lot of luckÃ¢â¬âbut wh y not, sometimes you did have luck, and he had felt all along that this leave was going to be wonderful. (Martha Gellhorn, Miami-New York. The Atlantic Monthly, 1948)Cato was calling out, over and over, Now the ship is sinking inch by inch! Now the ship is sinking inch by inch! (Elizabeth Bishop, The Farmers Children. Harpers Bazaar, 1949)Quite instructively, Menno Kamminga has made the important point that the European system has performed quite poorly when faced with situations of egregious violations of human rights. (Obiora Chinedu Okafor, The African Human Rights System, Activist Forces and International Institutions. Cambridge University Press, 2007) Formal Compounds Several compound adverbs that can be classed in (iii) [i.e., temporal ordering subsequent to a given time reference] are found only in certain formal varieties of contemporary English: henceforth, henceforward, hereupon, thenceforward, thereafter, thereupon, whereupon. (Randolph Quirk et al., A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language, 2nd ed. Longman, 1985) A Minor Category [C]ompound adverbs are not very numerous in Present-day English. Some of them are morphologically opaque historical relics, such as the negative operator NOT, which goes back to the Old English noun phrase NAWHIT. It is questionable whether compounding with WHERE, THERE and HERE is still productive today. Many compound adverbs have become polyfunctional as a result of secondary grammaticalization. Many have also reduced their functional load in the course of time, including the conjuncts HOWEVER and THEREFORE... (Matti Rissanen, Introduction. Grammaticalization at Work, ed. by Matti Rissanen, Merja KytÃ ¶, and Kirsi Heikkonen. Walter de Gruyter, 1997)
Tuesday, May 12, 2020
The aspects of political history of the America from Pre-European contact to the American Revolution that I find more interesting are Discovery and Settlement of the New World, Establishment of Colonies and the American Revolution, because these events changed the course of History of America since its discovery and colonization until independence. First, with the arrival of Europeans to the New World a series of events that drastically change the lives of the natives in America are triggered, and this happens during the Discovery and Settlement of the New World. In the course of Pre-Columbian Era before the arrival of Europeans about 100 million native Americans lived in North, Central and South America, even though North grew in terms of civilization and sophistication, they didnt compare with the Aztecs who were known for establish a political and military empire in Central America, or with the Incas in South America who were great engineers. Later, on October 12, 1492 Christopher Columbus with his crew aboard of three ships: The NiÃ ±a, The Pinta and The Santa Maria discovered America thinking he found the East Indies. After that, Hernan Cortez a Spanish explorer and his army in order to expand the Spanish empire contributed to the fall of the Aztec empire considering that Cortes learned the weaknesses of the enemy and rul ed the people through Montezuma an Aztec emperor which lead to the Aztecs to attack the Spaniards then Montezuma is killed and a battle began killingShow MoreRelatedColonialism2524 Words Ã |Ã 11 Pagesexploited large areas of the world. The purposes of colonialism included economic exploitation of the colonys natural resources, creation of new markets for the colonizer, and extension of the colonizers way of life beyond its national borders. 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It marks the very beginning of the modern era of knowledge, skill, art and science. It was the time of grand investigation and discoveries, religious and political havocs, and astonishing literature. Europes overland trade routes to the East had been blocked by 14th century due to the disintegration of the Mongol empire and the expansion of the Ottoman Empire. Thus began the Age of Discovery with theRead MoreWomen in Colonial America1842 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagestheir husbands because it was tradition. The ways of the Ã¢â¬Ëold countryÃ¢â¬â¢ culture was forced upon a new one, disallowing any room for new ideals. Although constrained by society Colonial women have had their part in shaping America. European nations came to the Americas to increase their wealth and broaden their influence over world affairs. The Spanish were among the first Europeans to explore the Ã¢â¬ËNew WorldÃ¢â¬â¢ and the first to settle in the present-day United States. By 1650, however, England had establishedRead MoreEssay History of Michigan2046 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesto the dominant tribes in Michigan during the early 1600s. The three tribes were: A) Sauk, Fox, and Algonquin B) Cherokee, Shawnee, and Sioux C) Ottawa, Chippewa, and Potawatomi D) Iroquois, Delaware, and Miami 2.How long had Native Americans lived on the North American continent before the first Europeans arrived? A) 8,000 years B) 14,000 years C) 10,000 years D) 5,000 years 3.In Carl Sandburgs poem, Four Preludes on Playthings on the Wind, words left behind in the ruins of an ancient civilizationRead MoreReading Key3881 Words Ã |Ã 16 PagesCHAPTER 1: THREE OLD WORLDS CREATE A NEW, 1492-1600 GUIDED READING QUESTIONS 57 terms Introduction Know: Old World, New World Are the terms old world and new world biased? Old World : Europeans fleeing poverty religious persecution. New World: North America 1. What conditions existed in what is today the United States that made it fertile ground for a great nation? Abundant natural resources Prior inhabitance cultivation of the land by the Native Americans The Shaping ofRead MoreApush Timeline 1607-17754368 Words Ã |Ã 18 Pages1. (1607) Jamestown was formed: This event was significant because it was the beginning of the English colonies in the New World. Jamestown the first permanent English settlement in the Americas. The colonization was funded the by Virginia Company. After this colony was formed, more people started to come over from England. Without these colonists the Virginia colony would be much different. It also helped them learn about what kind of people they needed to send over. At first they sent over gentlemenRead MoreJames Cooks Contribution to the Development of the British Empire5375 Words Ã |Ã 22 Pagesthe 18th century when James Cook, originally a poor farm boy, explored and mapped vast uncharted areas of the Pacific and the Atlantic Ocean. However, James Cook was not Ãâonly an explorer. He can also be called a scientist Ãâ" he managed to introduce new principles into seafaring and cartography. For better understanding, the paper is divided into five chapters. The first chapter is the introduction, which throws light on the purpose and structure of the paper. Read More The Life and Contribution to the Development of the British Empire of James Cook5135 Words Ã |Ã 21 Pagesthe 18th century when James Cook, originally a poor farm boy, explored and mapped vast uncharted areas of the Pacific and the Atlantic Ocean. However, James Cook was not Ã¢â¬ËonlyÃ¢â¬â¢ an explorer. He can also be called a scientist Ã¢â¬â he managed to introduce new principles into seafaring and cartography. For better understanding, the paper is divided into five chapters. The first chapter is the introduction, which throws light on the purpose and structure of the paper. The second chapter is a brief introductionRead MoreThe New England Renaissance1942 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesThe New England Renaissance (1800 - 1860) American literature, in its most basic structure, has it roots in British literature. The earlier writers knew Chaucer, Shakespeare, Milton, Pope, Dryden, Spenser, Donne, and Bacon. Most families had copies of the Authorized Version of the Bible of 1611, commonly known as the King James Version. As time went on, American writers continued to be influenced by Dickens, the Bronte sisters , Austen and Shelley. The
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Multiple Sclerosis is a disease that bewilders us all.. There is no known cause. We will write a custom essay sample on Multiple Sclerosis Diseases or any similar topic only for you Order Now We do know that MS (multiple sclerosis) is a disease where the myelin breaks down and is replaced by scar tissue. The demyelination can slow down or block the flow of signals to and from the central nervous system to the rest of the body, impairing such functions as vision, strength, and coordination. 1 While we do know what MS is we still donÃ¢â¬â¢t know why, where and when people contract the disease. It has been proven that MS generally appears between the ages of twenty to forty and it strikes women at more than twice the ratio it strikes men. Statistics have also shown that the disease strikes the middle and upper class more than the lower class and poor. Worldwide research shows that MS has a broad geographical distribution. It has long established that MS is more prominent in colder regions and rare in tropical areas. Maine being a colder climate has shown some of the highest rates of MS. 2 There is evidence of a slight increase in MS among first degree relativesÃ¢â¬âparents, siblings, and children. It is also suspected that the same family members may inherent a genetic susceptibility to MS. While it is possible to inherit a genetic susceptibility to MS, it is not possible to inherit the disease. And even people who have all the necessary genes donÃ¢â¬â¢t necessarily get MS. The disease, experts believe, must be triggered by environmental factors. So MS is not considered a hereditary disease. 3 Until the definite cause of Ms is proved the treatment cannot be truly scientific. But there are treatments that are effective in dealing with symptoms. For instance, there are the common sense treatments that everyone, with or without an illness, should treat themselves with, which are: A healthy diet, exercise, sufficient amount of rest and to live your life as you would normally. There are also lots of drugs that treat many of the different symptoms. Since there are so many symptoms and treatments, I will only list a few: Treatments that increase the blood flow, that decrease blood clotting, treatments for chemical eccess or deficiency, treatments to prevent infection and treatments for the immune system. Treatment and rehabilitation have also been joined together. Weakness is one of the major symptoms of Ms and can be treated with physical therapy and strengthening exercises. One of the best exercises for reducing weakness in the limbs is hydrotherapy. Hydrotherapy is done in the water. Hydrotherapy exercises use the benefits of buoyancy. Another way to eliminate weakness is to stay off a weak limb. Overall, by recognizing limits and using common sense, weakness can be greatly diminished. 4 Spasticity, another MS symptom, is most effectively treated with physical therapy. Cold is an excellent temporary measure for relaxing the spastic limb. Hydrotherapy is, again, the most effective exercise for relief, combining stretching and cool temperatures. There are also many medications for spasticity, such as Baclofen, Dantrollene, and Diazepam. Relaxation techniques such as yoga, transcendental meditation, biofeedback, have been successful with spasticity as well. 5 Some MS patients might have mild to sever balance trouble. In mild cases, the person can learn how to compensate easily by standing and walking with a little wider base and taking short steps rather than long strides. When balance trouble is a little more severe, a four-pronged cane, crutches or a walker may be necessary. Someone with MS could have visual problems. The problem varies from decreased acuity, blurred or cloudy vision, and double vision. The treatment depends on the stage of the problem. If it is a new part of an attack, visual loss responds to steroids. If it is a persistent problem, glasses or special lenses might be the best treatment. 7 Bladder problems are unfortunately not uncommon with MS. The most common are frequency and urgency. There are three good medications that relieve symptoms when they are present for more than a week or two: Pro-Banthine, Ditropan and Tofranil. Iif bladder problems do not respond to medication, a complete bladder training problem may be prescribed. 7 The treatments and medications used ten years ago are still effective and still being used but there are medical breakthroughs being announced regularly. In October of 1994, there was a medical breakthrough. Researchers found out that an anticancer drug stops the most crippling form of MS. The drug is Cladribine and the results are dramatic. A study was done on 49 patients with progressive chronic MS, which effects about 53,000 Americans and is the most severe form of MS. Half of the patients were given the drug and the other half were given a placebo. For the patients that were given Cladribine the spread of MS stopped for all patients and some improved. Their legs no longer shook and they no longer needed canes or braces. Dr. Ernest Beutler stated: Ã¢â¬Å"ItÃ¢â¬â¢s the only agent that has clearly been shown to stop the progression of the disease. Ã¢â¬Å"8 Another treatment that is not new or a medical breakthrough but is very effective and gaining popularity with MS patients is Apitherapy, which is the scientific name for the bee venom that is used by MS patients. Doctors arenÃ¢â¬â¢t exactly sure why the bee venom is effective. They know that the venom contains two powerful anti-inflammatory agents, melittin and adolapin which appear to fight the neural sheath inflammation itself. One women with MS is quoted after two months of bee venom treatments: Ã¢â¬Å"My hearing was totally back and I was out of the wheelchair and walking with a caneÃ¢â¬ . Another example was a young women who had bladder problems. After her venom treatments she hasnÃ¢â¬â¢t wet the bed since she first contracted MS. Others have noticed more balance, more energy and less numbness in there legs and feet. Overall, whether itÃ¢â¬â¢s medication, exercise, rehabilitation, the most important factor in the treatment of this disease is to have a positive attitude, hope for the future, and a desire to live your life as you normally would from day to day. Socially MS can be just as difficult to fight as it is physically. Dating, marriage, children, careers, parents and friends can be difficult barriers emotionally. dating is hard for anyone regardless of sex, age, appearance or status in life. if your MS has visual symptoms that are apparent to others. its best to be open right away. You should go about this in whatever way is most comfortable to you. for people with mild or invisible MS, disclosure to a dating can and probably should wait. Like any other person some relationships work out and some donÃ¢â¬â¢t . The best advice is to date, explore new relationships and donÃ¢â¬â¢t be afraid to fall in love. 2 MS will have an impact on your marriage. Management of Ms requires patience and understanding. When your MS is in remission there may be no problem to face. When youÃ¢â¬â¢re in a new attack, your mate need to take over shopping, cooking, mowing, and caring for the children if any. the most patience and understandings comes to anned when a person with MS becomes disabled. this is the real test of love for most couples. this is when you should really take notice of what kind of problems you had before. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t expect your partner to feel guilty. if the marriage was meant to work it will work. If you have MS your children have probably already figured out that something is wrong before you tell them. The best approach is to be honest with your children. with each knew attack there needs to be communication. Parents with MS should watch their children for any emotional difficulties they may be having. Keeping your friends should not be a problem. Good reins stick by your side through everything. Your friends should feel comfortable with you just as you should feel comfortable with them. With making new friends it should be just the same as you made them before. You should eventually tell them about MS but it can wait until both feel comfortable with talking about it. More often it is harder for someone with MS just to hang on to a job. unfortunately it has little to do with their ability and more to do with discrimination. But today there are laws and regulations so Know one with any disability should be fired or feel thy have to quit. 2 Job hunting with Ms is a whole different issue. if you have viable symptoms, you are going to have to address your situation up front . If you have an interview you may want to be up front about it on the phone. The main thing is if you feel comfortable with yourself others will to. You should always emphasize that you are a hard worker. And be aware of discrimination because it happens all the time and it is illegal. Overall i personally believe that Ms should not get in the way of your social life. If you have a good personality you should be able to make friends and if you are a hard worker there is no reason why you should not be able to work. A positive way of thinking will definitely get you on your way. After MS patients have dealt with physical therapy, doctors, treatments and medications you may ask yourself where would therapeutic recreation come into the picture? The answer to that would depend on the person and what type of lifestyle and goals they had for themselves. todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society is pushing everyone to physically and emotionally fit with activities such as mountain biking, swimming skiing, and walking. The reason these and many other activates are so popular is because its fun, its a hobby, receives stress and its exercise whereas riding a stationary bike is exercise but you donÃ¢â¬â¢t hear to many people say its their hobby or its a fun pastime. TR(therapeutic recreation) come into place with people with MS and other mental and physical disabilities because their is a need for them to fulfill their goals and expectations like everyone else. Since they have a special need a TR program or specialist can help them fulfill that need. People with MS should have the maximum participation with the fewest adaptations. Just like any other part of their life style they should develop a leisure lifestyle that is normal a possible. I think it is important for Ms patients to choose their own activates and set their own goals, within reason.! Lastly, I feel sensitive to anyone that contracts a disease, such as AIDS, or cancer. Its an awful thing if someone was an IV drug user and than they contacted the Aids Virus or if some one smoked for thirty years and they were diagnosed with lung cancer. I think one of the hardest things about Ms is that you can be healthy or not healthy know one in your family could have it and then one day you show symptoms. Physiologically Yes that would be a difficult thing to deal with. But it is a disease that is striking millions of people and after doing research I believe the positive attitude and to go on with your normal way of living is the best psychological cure. It doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t stop you from living, having a job, a family, hobbies, or friends. Overall when they say MS is a mystery disease i would have to agree. I think there is definite hope for a cure for the future. We have medical breakthroughs and have several clues to the disease. How to cite Multiple Sclerosis Diseases, Essay examples
Sunday, May 3, 2020
Question: Write an analysis Brand pricing Radisson blu in uk and india? Answer: Brand Pricing of Radisson Blu in the UK and India Founded in 1938, Radisson Blu hotels are mainly located in the U.S. It is one of the major hotels in America which has expanded itself throughout the world including the U.K. and India. Brand pricing of any company is market driven (Radisson, 2015). The same is applied by Radisson Blu when it comes to selecting prices for its delicacies, hotel rooms and other amenities in the UK as well as India. Hence, the price is cheaper in India as compared to that of the UK. PESTEL analysis of Radisson Blu in UK Political Factors The terrorism act in UK was published on 7th July 2005, which was because of extremely religious organizations that were accommodating in the UK. Due to the act of terrorism, the density of visitors in UK is reducing which is impacting the performance of Radisson Blu. Along with that even the internal politics of the UK is impacting Radisson Blus performance. Economic Factors The major factors affecting the Radisson Blu are the impacts of National macroeconomics situation. Also, most of the hotels were booked fully during the 2012 Olympics which was held in the UK but after the completion of Olympics, situation became just opposite. The economic growth of UK also impacts the Radisson Blu (Radisson, 2015). According to the current situation in the UK, the economic crisis is expected in the next one year. The inflation in the rate of GBP is also impacting the Radisson Blu. Social Environment Radisson Blu is a well-known brand in the UK and people even from outside the country prefer going to Radisson Blu. The UK being a rich country, people have a high standard of living. The financial condition of the UK is more improving with time. People of the UK are materialistic. They like to hang out on every weekend. The impact of social media is increasing every year. So, the concept of family is also changing in the UK. Technological Factor The infrastructure of Radisson Blu creates a positive impact on the consumers. The main technological factors that affect this hotel are the use of energy, cost of using energy and potential for innovation (Jauhari, 2012). Environmental Factor Currently, hotel and the catering industries are getting criticized for creating pollution in the environment on the attractive places like beaches, forests, hills and historical places. The tourism activities are disturbing the environment and wild animals. The hotel industries are becoming one of the major reasons of the global warming due to the emission of carbon. Legal Environment Legal factors include the tax related activities, laws and regulation in the UK, etc. The rules of getting visa and immigration have become stricter (Sharma, 2010). The laws related to the safety and protection is also impacting the Radisson Blu. PESTEL Analysis for Radisson Blu in UK Political Factors The political violence in India, the terrorist attacks in Mumbai have threatened the tourism of India but according to statistics, this is just a temporary situation. The global terrorist attack has fallen on the 8% terrorism in India. The dirty political situation in India is also impacting the Radisson Blu group but on the other hand, government is making various efforts to attract the tourists towards India. Economic Factors India is categorised as the developing country. The economy of India is growing with time. If we see the last economic crisis, India was the least affected in that crisis but there are various types of taxes that are defined in India for hotel industries. Similarly, the loan interest rate is low in India than the other countries. Social Factors Radisson Blu is very famous in India also. Most of the people belong to middle class family. The trend of joint family is present in India till now but these trends are changing with time. Radisson Blu hotels provide a taste of Indian families to the visitors (Sharma, 2010). India is famous for the royal life of Kings. Thus, the infrastructure of the Hotel is designed according to the royal feeling. Technological factors Radisson Blu uses the Social networking sites, email marketing, SEO marketing, media advertisements etc. for the marketing purposes. The booking system of the Radisson Blu is also very simple which is through the internet. Radisson Blu has tie ups with the Trip advisor and various other internet sites for the hotel advisers. Environmental Factors India is a country where all types of weather are found, like cold, hot, icy, rainy etc. according to the time. India has the desert in Rajasthan and Gujarat on the other hand West Bengal, Assam are full of greenery (Jauhari, 2012). The visitors get every type of environment in India. Legal Factors After the attack on Hotel Taj in Mumbai, the government has made strict laws related to the tourism. It became essential for the hotels to have tight security. There are various other legal laws present in India which affects the Radisson Blu. References Sharma, Abhijeet (2010). PEST analysis on Hotel Industry [online]. Available From: https://www.managementparadise.com/forums/principles-management-p-o-m/208668-pest-analysis-hotel-industry.html [Accessed: 29th March 2015]. Radisson.com, (2015). Radisson Hotels - Great Hotel Deals, Rooms Services - Radisson.com. [online] Available at: https://www.radisson.com/ [Accessed 29 Mar. 2015]. Jauhari, V. (2012). Strategic growth challenges for the Indian hotel industry.Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes,4(2), 118-130.
Thursday, March 26, 2020
Witch Hunts Imagine what it would be like to be labeled a Communist for the mere fact that you happened to sport a goatee? It happened in the 1950's McCarthyism period! Doesn't this sound strangely similar to the Salem witch-hunts? Perfectly normal people accused of being witches just because they were seen dancing strangely in the woods. McCarthyism and the Salem witch-hunts were both attempts by power-hungry people to diminish their competition without any concrete evidence. The causes of the Salem witchcraft trails and ?McCarthyism? were irrational fears that witchcraft and communism were going to infiltrate society if drastic measures were not taken. Once the idea that witchcraft might really be going on got started, the behavior of normal citizens was open to suspicion of witchcraft. Likewise, the real fear of a Communist take-over had Americans in the 1950's so frightened, some actually believed that there neighbors might be spies because McCarthy was planting this suspicion so strongly into their minds. Once the hysteria began, it snowballed out of control. In the Salem witch hunts two young girls, Betty Paris and Abigail Williams, were exhibiting strange behavior and were diagnosed to have been touched by the hand of the devil. When pressured to reveal the witch or witches who had caused this, the young girls named several outcasts of society. These accused witches were guilty until they prove their innocence. Many were tortured until they confessed they were in fact witches so they did not have to endure any more pain. A few who admitted their guilt were spared, while the rest were quickly executed. These confessions became the ?proof? of the existence of witches. The hysteria of McCarthyism began when Senator Joseph McCarthy landed a series of highly publicized investigations that intended to bring forward Communists in the State Department and Hollywood. McCarthy eventually let his ?Red Scare? get out of control and said the U.S. Army was concealing foreign espionage activities. His accusations contained little evidence and McCarthy eventually fell into disfavor. The Witch-hunts of Salem resulted in the execution of 20 individuals. People accused of witchcraft were considered guilty until proven innocent, and tests were devised to identify the guilty. Those who passed the treacherous tests were considered witches and put to death. Eventually, the madness ended but not before the slaying of twenty innocent people. The McCarthy Communism scare turned very negitive toward Senator McCarthy when the hearings to investigate whether the secretary of the Army was not cooperating to uncover Communists in the U.S. military. These hearings were given a great amount of media coverage and that did much to end the anti Communist ?witch-hunt? led by McCarthy. A resolution of censure against McCarthy was soon introduced in the Senate. On December 2, 1954, Senator Joseph McCarthy was condemned in a vote of a special session of the U.S. Senate for his conduct in Senate committees. Bibliography Garraty, John A. ?The Rise of McCarthyism.? The Story of America. Cincinnati, OH: Pantheon Books, 1990: 458-459. ?McCarthy, Joseph Raymond.? Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia 99. New York, NY: Publishing, Inc., 1999. CD-ROM ?The Salem Witch Trails 1692.? 27 August 1997. (14 October 1999).
Friday, March 6, 2020
The Ransom of Atahualpa On November 16, 1532, Atahualpa, Lord of the Inca Empire, agreed to meet with a handful of bedraggled foreigners who had intruded upon his realm. These foreigners were some 160 Spanish conquistadors under the command of Francisco Pizarro and they treacherously attacked and captured the young Inca Emperor. Atahualpa offered to bring his captors a fortune in ransom and he did so: the amount of treasure was staggering. The Spanish, nervous about reports of Inca generals in the area, executed Atahualpa anyway in 1533. Atahualpa and Pizarro Francisco Pizarro and his band of Spaniards had been exploring the western coast of South America for two years: they were following reports of a powerful, wealthy empire high in the frosty Andes Mountains. They moved inland and made their way to the town of Cajamarca in November of 1532. They were fortunate: Atahualpa, Emperor of the Inca was there. He had just defeated his brother Huscar in a civil war over who would rule the kingdom. When a band of 160 foreigners showed up on his doorstep, Atahualpa was not afraid: he was surrounded by an army of thousands of men, most of them war veterans, who were fiercely loyal to him. The Battle of Cajamarca The Spanish conquistadors were aware of Atahualpas massive army - just as they were aware of the massive quantities of gold and silver carried by Atahualpa and the Inca nobles. In Mexico, Hernn Cortes had found riches by capturing Aztec Emperor Montezuma: Pizarro decided to try the same tactic. He hid his cavalrymen and artillerymen around the square in Cajamarca. Pizarro sent Father Vicente de Valverde to meet the Inca: the friar showed the Inca a breviary. The Inca glanced through it and, unimpressed, threw it down. The Spanish used this supposed sacrilege as an excuse to attack. Suddenly the square was filled with heavily armed Spaniards on foot and horseback, massacring native nobility and warriors to the thunder of cannon fire. Atahualpa Captive Atahualpa was captured and thousands of his men were murdered. Among the dead were civilians, soldiers and important members of the Inca aristocracy. The Spanish, practically invulnerable in their heavy steel armor, did not suffer a single casualty. The horsemen proved particularly effective, running down terrified natives as they fled the carnage. Atahualpa was placed under heavy guard in the Temple of the Sun, where he finally met Pizarro. The Emperor was allowed to speak with some of his subjects, but every word was translated for the Spanish by a native interpreter. AtahualpaÃ¢â¬â¢s Ransom It didnÃ¢â¬â¢t take long for Atahualpa to realize that the Spanish were there for gold and silver: the Spanish had wasted no time in looting corpses and the temples of Cajamarca. Atahualpa was made to understand that he would be freed if he paid enough. He offered to fill a room with gold and then twice over with silver. The room was 22 feet long by 17 feet wide (6.7 meters by 5.17 meters) and the Emperor offered to fill it to a height of about 8 feet (2.45m). The Spanish were stunned and quickly accepted the offer, even instructing a notary to make it official. Atahualpa sent out word to bring gold and silver to Cajamarca and before long, native porters were bringing a fortune to the town from all corners of the empire and laying it at the feet of the invaders. The Empire in Turmoil Meanwhile, the Inca Empire was thrown into turmoil by the capture of their Emperor. To the Inca, the Emperor was semi-divine and no one dared risk an attack to rescue him. Atahualpa had recently defeated his brother, Huscar, in a civil war over the throne. Huascar was alive but captive: Atahualpa feared he would escape and rise again because Atahualpa was a prisoner, so he ordered Huascars death. Atahualpa had three massive armies in the field under his top generals: Quisquis, Chalcuchima and RumiÃ ±ahui. These generals were aware that Atahualpa had been captured and decided against an attack. Chalcuchima was eventually tricked and captured by Hernando Pizarro, whereas the other two generals would fight against the Spanish in the months that followed. The Death of Atahualpa In early 1533, rumors began flying around the Spanish camp about RumiÃ ±ahui, greatest of the Inca generals. None of the Spaniards knew exactly where RumiÃ ±ahui was and they greatly feared the massive army he led. According to the rumors, RumiÃ ±ahui had decided to free the Inca and was moving into position to attack. Pizarro sent out riders in every direction. These men found no sign of a large army, but still the rumors persisted. Panicked, the Spanish decided that Atahualpa had become a liability. They hastily tried him for treason Ã¢â¬â for allegedly telling RumiÃ ±ahui to rebel Ã¢â¬â and found him guilty. Atahualpa, last free Emperor of the Inca, was executed by garrote on July 26, 1533. The IncaÃ¢â¬â¢s Treasure Atahualpa had kept his promise and filled the room with gold and silver. The treasure brought to Cajamarca was staggering. Priceless works of art in gold, silver and ceramic were brought, along with tons of precious metals in jewelry and temple decorations. Greedy Spaniards smashed priceless objects to pieces so that the room would fill up more slowly. All of this treasure was melted down, forged into 22 karat gold and counted. AtahualpaÃ¢â¬â¢s ransom added up to over 13,000 pounds of gold and twice that much silver. After the Ã¢â¬Å"royal fifthÃ¢â¬ was taken out (the King of Spain imposed a 20% tax on conquest loot), this treasure was divided up among the original 160 men according to a complicated arrangement involving footmen, horsemen and officers. The lowliest of the soldiers received 45 pounds of gold and 90 pounds of silver: at todayÃ¢â¬â¢s rate the gold alone is worth over a half million dollars. Francisco Pizarro received roughly 14 times the amount of a common soldie r, plus substantial Ã¢â¬Å"giftsÃ¢â¬ such as AtahualpaÃ¢â¬â¢s throne, which was made of 15 karat gold and weighed 183 pounds. The Lost Gold of Atahualpa Legend has it that the Spanish conquistadors did not get their greedy hands on all of AtahualpaÃ¢â¬â¢s ransom. Some people believe, based on somewhat sketchy historical documents, that a group of natives was on its way to Cajamarca with a load of Inca gold and silver for AtahualpaÃ¢â¬â¢s ransom when they received word that the Emperor had been murdered. The Inca general in charge of transporting the treasure decided to hide it and left it in an unmarked cave in the mountains. Supposedly it was found 50 years later by a Spaniard named Valverde, but then was lost again until an adventurer named Barth Blake found it in 1886: he later died suspiciously. No one has seen it since. Is there a lost Inca treasure in the Andes, the final installment of AtahualpaÃ¢â¬â¢s Ransom? Source Ã Hemming, John. The Conquest of the Inca London: Pan Books, 2004 (original 1970).
Wednesday, February 19, 2020
Six Sigma Implementation - Essay Example A Six Sigma opportunity is then the total quantity of chances for a defect. Process sigma can easily be calculated using a Six Sigma calculator. According to the Six Sigma Academy, Black Belts save companies approximately $230,000 per project and can complete four to 6 projects per year. General Electric, one of the most successful companies implementing Six Sigma, has estimated benefits on the order of $10 billion during the first five years of implementation. GE first began Six Sigma in 1995 after Motorola and Allied Signal blazed the Six Sigma trail. Since then, thousands of companies around the world have discovered the far reaching benefits of Six Sigma. There are two Six Sigma sub-methodologies commonly in use: DMAIC and DMADV. The Six Sigma DMAIC process (define, measure, analyze, improve, control) is an improvement system for existing processes falling below specification and looking for incremental improvement. The Six Sigma DMADV process (define, measure, analyze, design, verify) is an improvement system used to develop new processes or products at Six Sigma quality levels. It can also be employed if a current process requires more than just incremental improvement. ... The Core Team defines and reviews Six Sigma projects progress, and acts as the political leader, removing the barriers for the project teams. The Master Black Belt acts as a technical coach and provides the knowledge of quality tools for the project team. There is typically one Master Black Belt for every 1,000 employees. The Black Belt controls the project. There are typically 10 to 20 Black Belts per 1,000 employees. The Green Belt supports Black Belt. There are typically 3 to 5 Green Belts on the Project Team with the Black Belt. There are typically 300 Green Belts per 1,000 employees. Yellow Belts are the balance of your population. They provide information and support to the Six Sigma project teams, and are a source for future Green Belts. The MAIC discipline sets up a clear protocol to expedite internal communication. The incentive system facilitates Six Sigma projects to generate results. Situation: Need for Implementation of Six Sigma By 2001, the US-based General Electric Company (GE) was easily the largest diversified company in the world, with revenues of $ 125.91 billion and net earnings of $ 13.68 billion. Out of the company's 24 different businesses, some were so large that they could independently feature in the Fortune 500 list of companies. GE had operations in over 100 countries more than 250 manufacturing plants in 26 countries. The company was one of the largest employers in the world with strength of around 275,000 employees. GE remained the only company listed in the Dow Jones Industrial Index that had been included in the original index in 1896. The aim of implementing Six Sigma at GE was to infuse quality in